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Improvement of TM AI Cobot S Series’ Safety

Examples are valid for:

TMflow Software version: 2.14 or above.

TM Robot Hardware version: HW5 or above

Note that older or newer software versions may have different results.


Safety Function List #

SF# Name Robot Stopping Function Stop Category Structure Category PL
SF0 Robot Stick ESTOP Emergency Stop Category 1 Stop Cat. 3


SF1 User Connected ESTOP Input Emergency Stop Category 1 Stop
SF2 Encoder Standstill Output (Output function)
SF3 User Connected External Safeguard Input Protective Stop Category 2 Stop
SF4 Additional Joint Torque Monitoring Protective Stop Category 2 Stop
SF5 Joint Position Limit Protective Stop Category 2 Stop
SF6 Joint Speed Limit Protective Stop Category 2 Stop
SF7 Speed Limit Protective Stop Category 2 Stop
SF8 Additional Force Limit Protective Stop Category 2 Stop
SF9 User Connected External Safeguard Input for Human–Machine Safety Settings (Change safety criteria)
SF10 Robot ESTOP Output (Output function)
SF11 User Connected External Safeguard Output (Output function)
SF12 Robot Human–Machine Safety Settings Output (Output function)
SF13 Robot Recovery Mode Output (Output function)
SF14 Robot Moving Output (Output function)
SF15 User Connected Enabling Switch Input Protective Stop Category 2 Stop
SF16 User Connected ESTOP Input without Robot ESTOP Output Emergency Stop Category 1 Stop
SF17 Cartesian Limit A Protective Stop Category 2 Stop
SF18 Cartesian Limit B (Change safety criteria)
SF19 Robot Stick Enabling Switch Protective Stop Category 2 Stop
SF20 Reset Output (Output function)
SF21 Robot Stick Reset (Reset safety state)
SF22 Enabling Switch on End-module Protective Stop Category 2 Stop
SF23 User Connected External Bumping Sensor Input Protective Stop Category 2 Stop
SF24 End-Point Reduced Speed Limit Protective Stop Category 2 Stop
SF25 User Connected MODE Switch Input (Change safety criteria)
SF26 User Connected Reset Input (Reset safety state)
SF27 User Connected Soft Axis Settings Switch Input (Change safety criteria)
SF28 Enabling Switch Output (Output function)
SF29 MODE Switch Output (Output function)
SF30 Safe Home Output (Output function)

1.       Stop categories in accordance with IEC 60204-1.

2.       The structure category according to ISO 13849-1:2015.

3.       PL (Performance Level) in accordance with ISO 13849-1:2015.


Improvement & Scenario #


  • All Safety Functions are PL=d, Cat.3
All 31 safety functions in TRSS5.0 (TECHMAN ROBOT Safety System 5.0) are complied with ISO 13849-1:2015 safety design and certificated with PL=d Cat.3 structure by TÜV NORD. These safety functions’ design meets the requirements in ISO 10218-1:2011 and also the ISO/DIS 10218-1:2023.


  • Comply with the latest ISO/DIS 10218-1:2020 for future market

Although the ISO/DIS 10218-1:2020 is yet published, the TRSS5.0 is designed according to this version. In order to meet the requirements and the future market trend, TRSS5.0 has added certain safety designs:


  • SF2- Encoder Standstill Output


ISO/DIS 10218-1:2020: The safety function shall provide a safety function output when the robot is in a monitored standstill condition.


SF2 Encoder Standstill Output comes with a safety output function to monitor the movement of each robot actuator through the joint encoder after triggered Category 2 Stop within a fixed time. If the joint encoder movement exceeds the acceptable range, the robot will perform a Category 0 Stop.


  • SF19- Robot Stick Enabling Switch


ISO/DIS 10218-1:2020: Each teach pendant that can initiate motion or cause movement(s) shall have an enabling device in accordance with 5.13.



SF15 User Connected Enabling Switch Input and SF19 Robot Stick Enabling Switch are designed to permit manual control operation while the Enabling Switch is at ON Status under MANUAL MODE. SF22 Enabling Switch on end-module is designed to grant robot hand guide teaching while the Enabling Switch on end-module at ON Status under MANUAL MODE.



  • SF24- End-Point Reduced Speed Limit


ISO/DIS 10218-1:2020: With the reduced-speed safety function, the speed of the TCP and the endpoint(s) of each joint of the manipulator shall not exceed 250 mm/s including the effects of any auxiliary axis. It should be possible to select speeds lower than 250 mm/s as the maximum limit.

The robot shall have reduced-speed safety function to enable limiting the end-effector or workpiece speed(s) to 250 mm/s or less. This safety function shall be used with reduced-speed manual mode. Figure 2 shows the end-points of each joint of the manipulator.

(Figure 2 from ISO/DIS 10218-1:2020)













SF24 provides a safety function to set the robot end-point reduced speed limit. When any robot end-point exceeds the set limit under T1 MODE, it will initiate a Category 2 Stop.


  • Enabling Switch on End-module
Because the Enabling Switch is mandatory in ISO/DIS 10218-1:2020 under MANUAL MODE, and it is not convenient and not ergonomic while one hand holding the Robot Stick Enabling Switch and another hand holding the FREE Button to drag the robot.
So, there is a safety-rated Enabling Switch on End-module in S Series robot. SF22 Enabling Switch on end-module is designed to grant robot hand guide teaching while the Enabling Switch on end-module at ON Status under MANUAL MODE. It would be easier to drag the robot using two hands.


  • Safety-rated RESET Function
A protective stop is designed to protect operator from been harmed. According to the ISO 10218-1:2011 and ISO/DIS 10218-1:2020, the reset of a protective stop can be automatically, or manual. But if the RESET function of a safety function is not safety-rated, it would put the operator in danger. The case can be like this, a protective stop function, e.g. safeguard function by light curtain, is set to Manual RESET. An operator walk through the light curtain and the robot system stops, but the non-safety-rated RESET function goes wrong and resumes the system. The robot system resumes motion and collides into the operator.
In case to avoid the above scenario, the TRSS5.0 has designed with safety-rated RESET function so that the resume of any safety stop can be ensured.


  • Auto Mode-only Safeguard Function
There are scenarios that the robot systems are already integrated with safeguard devices, e.g. laser scanner, and work normally. Maybe one day, it requires a re-teach of the programming point but it is hard to remove or suspend the laser scanner. So the robot can not be moved or have any motion while the safeguard devices triggered, users have to remove the safeguard devices first to re-teach the robot. (example picture from internet)

In case to avoid the above scenario, the TRSS5.0 has designed with Auto Mode-only safeguard function. If configured, the safeguard function will be in-effective under MANUAL MODE. The users’ safety will still be ensured by the Enabling Switch.





  • Clear Definition of Local Control & Remote Control

The robot will totally under Local Control while user is controlling the robot using the Robot Stick, which ensures the robot will not allow motion by receiving peripheral commands. The safety can be totally ensured. The Local Control and Remote Control according to Robot Stick status and operation can be summarized as the table below:


Enable/Disable status of Robot Stick function Operation Using  
Local Control Enable, ON •         Robot Stick

•         TM Teach Pendant


Remote Control Disable, OFF •         External IO connection

•         Fieldbus command


  • Safe Home Output Function
When robot is integrated on top of the autonomous guided vehicle (AGV). The robot only allowed to move when AGV reaches the station, and only when robot finished its task on the station, the AGV can carry the robot to leave the station.
In addition, the pose of robot when AGV leaves the station is important. If error occurs from mis-programming, intrinsic protective stop of the robot, failure of the non-safety rated part, and the mistake in the latching state kept by work finished command from the AGV, the AGV may carry the robot to leave, with a non-desired pose, and will cause risk when AGV is moving, e.g .if the robot’s pose is extended out side of the area of the AGV volume to the floor, the robot arm may swap and crush to human when AGV is moving.

So, TRSS5.0 has designed to provided a Safe Home Output function to benefit the system integration with AGV. User can set the Safe Home pose of robot according to users’ application scenario.

If safe home pose is exceeded, an output shall be issued. The application scenario can be:

1.       User can connect robot Safe Home Output to automated guided vehicle’s (AGVs) emergency / protective stop function, if provided.

2.       While robot is out of the Safe Home, the AGV shall not move. While the robot is at safe home pose, the AGV can move.


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